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Exposure of cells to stress results in the rapid activation of a highly conserved family of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), known as stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK). The activation of these MAPK in response to stress, both p38 in mammals, like Hog1 in yeast, is essential for generating adaptive responses necessary for cell survival. One of the most relevant functions of the yeast Hog1MAPK is to coordinate the transcriptional program required for cell survival upon osmotic stress. Previously, researchers at the University Pompeu Fabra had described different mechanisms regulated by the Hog1MAPK during the process of transcription initiation by osmotic stress (eg, modification of transcription factors and recruitment of specific promoters of the RNA polymerase complex II and Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex, Sin3). However, work recently published in the journal Molecular Cell, these researchers, in collaboration with a team of Harvard University show that the Hog1MAPK also controls the transcriptional elongation process of stress response genes. Read the rest of this entry »
The protein-coding genes in eukaryotes are transcribed by the activity of RNA polymerase II. This transcript has three distinct phases, the third of which is the elongation. In the process of elongation by RNA polymerase II is linked to mRNA processing and release of protein-mRNA complex into the cytoplasm. Many protein factors cooperate with RNA polymerase II in the assembly of all this machinery of transcription and elongation.
Sebastian Chavez’s team at the University of Seville, has specialized in the development of tools for in vivo studies of this mechanism and the genetic analysis of these elements as a strategy to discern the functional relationships between them. Result of this work is the study discussed here, presented in Molecular and Cell Biology, and has helped to clarify some aspects of chromatin organization and the transcribed region-dependent role of these factors (the FACT complex).
Apparently derived from recent results, the FACT complex stimulates elongation by interacting with nucleosomes and the polymerase. However, the requirement of FACT is not equally necessary for all genes. For example, inactivation of FACT subunits, Spt16 and affects the transcription of genes that have positioned nucleosomes in transcribed regions (GAL1, PHO5), whereas no influence so evident in genes with a random nucleosome structure. The findings of this study indicate that the requirement for FACT during transcription depends on the organization of chromatin in the 5 ‘end of the region being transcribed.
Since the middle of last century was known that in vertebrates, meiosis and early embryonic divisions required polyadenylation and translational activation of maternal mRNA stored in the oocyte. However, it was not until the nineties when it began to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the expression of these mRNA, with the discovery of some of the major factors involved in the process. Read the rest of this entry »
Following his doctoral dissertation at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Raul Mendez spent the next eight years of research activity in American laboratories of Robert E. Rhoads (Louisiana State University Medical Center) and Joel D. Richter (University of Massachusetts Medical Center). This postdoctoral experience endorsed joining the brand new Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona back in 2001, where he went to lead the group, Translational control of gene expression, in the Gene Regulation Program of the center. Read the rest of this entry »
Many studies in the yeast Saccharomyces transcriptomic in analyzing the gene expression program in a variety of conditions. Most if not all the cited studies analyzed only the different levels of mRNA by conventional genomic techniques. Indeed, in many cases implicitly assumes that the levels of each mRNA are a direct consequence of the action of one or several transcriptional regulators. This does not take into account that mRNA levels depend both on its rate of synthesis and the degradation. This study, ‘paper of the week “in the journal J. Chem, is a collaboration between two groups at the universities of Lleida and Valencia, under the responsibility of Henry Smith and Jose Enrique Pérez-Ortín, respectively. Read the rest of this entry »
Transcription is a process in eukaryotic cells is coupled to mRNA processing and transport. In recent years, we know that the transcription of at least a number of genes occurs at the nuclear periphery near the nuclear pore. In yeast ASaccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Thp1, Sac3 and Cdc31 form a complex (THSC), associated with nuclear pore affecting the process of transcription and RNA transport. This complex is also present Sus1, a protein identified as a component of the SAGA complex, involved in transcription initiation. Read the rest of this entry »
Research in the past eight years has driven the classical idea that nuclear processes occurring from transcriptional activation to the mature mRNA out of the nucleus were independent events. The work of many groups has contributed significantly to turning this vision of gene expression, and currently accepted model of coupled processes that ensure the proper output for translation of mRNA in the cytoplasm. Read the rest of this entry »
The export of messenger RNA from nucleus to cytoplasm is an essential process in eukaryotic cells. Sus1 protein plays a significant role in the coupling between the initiation of transcription and mRNA export. Sus1 is a small protein (11kDa of only), conserved in eukaryotes that physically interacts with two stable multiprotein complex. Sus1 binds to the transcription activator complex SAGA and the complex formed by TREX2 binding proteins nuclear pore. In previous studies the group of Rodriguez-Navarro, Sus1 identified that is part of a submodule of SAGA, comprising Sus1-Ubp8-Sgf1, and responsible for deubicuitinación of histone H2B. Read the rest of this entry »
Several themes are featured. Transcriptional activators bind to specific DNA sequences, and the chromatin context of the DNA biding site can have a positive or negative influence on binding of the activator or the proteins it recruits to the promoter. Activators can bind and recruit chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes that influence local chromatin structure. Read the rest of this entry »
Viroids are the bottom rung of the biological scale, being exclusively composed of a small circular RNA of 250-400 nucleotides lacking any coding capacity, a key aspect that differentiates them from the viruses that encode proteins themselves. Virus and viroids also have an independent evolutionary origin, has been suggested that the latter are ancient molecules that come from precelulares early development of life on our planet. Read the rest of this entry »