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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is probably the organism more closely associated with the progress, welfare and recent human evolution. The result of this importance in human activities, is one of the most studied organisms from their genomic sequence to the specific fermentative activity of the many existing varieties. These groups united by the study of this yeast is that of Joaquín Ariño and Antonio Casamayor and his team of molecular biology of yeast at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.
The investigation of these specialists are reflected in a recent article in The Journal of Biological Chemistry on the transcriptional profiles of different phosphatases in Saccharomyces and functional role for them. Specifically, the study focuses on protein phosphatases 2C, a group of phosphatases encoded by several genes related. The experts analyzed transcriptional profiles in various mutants of these genes and identified two basic patterns, that of a mutation in the gene PTC1 and generated by deletion of genes PTC2-5.
The mutation in PTC1 results in enhanced expression of genes that are also expressed when there is damage in the cell wall to maintain the integrity of it. There is also an increase in the activation of calcineurin and cell sensitivity to calcium, heavy metals and high pH, and a vacuolar function deficit. The authors speculate that the direct effect of loss of PTC1 is concrete action in a bad cell vacuolar activity and, therefore, the defects previously mentioned. This new perspective on the role of this gene could facilitate the search for specific protein targets PTC1 unidentified so far.
Failures in the replication of genetic material during cell division leads to the activation of the checkpoint (checkpoint) of replication, conserved in eukaryotes. When it detects replicative stress cellular responses are activated to preserve the integrity of the genome, including the stabilization of replication forks, the activation of a specific transcriptional program and the slowing of the cycle to prevent entry into mitosis in the absence of adequate replication genetics. The principal effector in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cds1 kinase is homologous to mammalian Chk2, which plays an essential role in stabilizing replication forks under stress. This kinase regulates events in brackets recombinogénicos stops and coordinates the resumption of replication when stress ceases and cells undergo an adaptation process. Read the rest of this entry »
The Ser / Thr protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are a group of evolutionarily conserved enzymes. Other phosphatases unlikable, Whose specificity is based on the interaction Between A Few Regulatory Numerous catalytic subunits and subunits, most organisms express multiple isoforms of PP2C. The identification of the function of Each is a major challenge, sincere in Humans May act as tumor Suppressors. Read the rest of this entry »