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- PROPERTIES OF DNA
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Efforts to characterize the process of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, are probably one of the clearest examples to represent the inherent complexity of regulatory mechanisms and interactions between enzymes, signals and various growth factors in a cell. Among these mechanisms, the role played by the kinase p38aMAP object of interest is the group of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, coordinated by Almudena Porras. In a paper published in the online edition of Cell Signal, this team has characterized cell lines derived from cardiomyocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in p38aMAP normal, with the aim to detect different responses to the process of apoptosis. Read the rest of this entry »
We had not yet discussed in this section an article that brings up the inherent complexity of the phenomena of embryonic development. By definition, these processes and the formation of organs in many different and specialized cell groups involve the establishment of mechanisms from the linearity of DNA are able to construct a complex three dimensional arrangement in space and time.
Such work represents a milestone in understanding basic biological processes, in many cases shared by the vast majority of living beings, and thus are the true touchstones in the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. Read the rest of this entry »
BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins) are determining factors in the mechanisms of embryonic development and differentiation of tissues such as bone, muscle and nervous. It knows its restrictive action on neuronal differentiation, promoting
the maintenance of progenitor cells, and in the adult organism can induce the formation of bone tissue. For his role as bone regenerators, these factors have been the subject of a more or less profound for decades.
A team of researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona published a study showing that transposons can silence genes adjacent to or significantly reduce its expression by induction of synthesis of an antisense RNA. This new mechanism is now described, unknown until now, has been observed in the genome of Drosophila buzzatii. In the human genome sequences corresponding to transposons may account for up to 45% of genetic material.
The work discussed is the extension of some previous studies by this group of the Department of Genetics and Microbiology at the UAB, which earned them a 1999 article in Science, which showed that the activity of the transposon generated a chromosomal inversion in D. Buzzatii, an event that often has adaptive value in this genus of insects. The connection with these evolutionary mechanisms are performed by the transposon Kepler, responsible for this gene silencing is now described by the group, which is found only in chromosomes with inversion induced by transposons, and not in individuals with the proper orientation of chromosomes after investment. Read the rest of this entry »
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminate virus-infected tumor cells or alloantigen through a lyric mechanism, which involves the secretion of a cytoplasmic granules containing cytotoxic proteins, perforin and granzymes, of which the two most important are granzyme A and granzyme B. Perforin interacts with cell membranes and allows the access of granzymes into the target cell, inducing cell death by apoptosis. Read the rest of this entry »
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A cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6 are attributed a crucial role in the initiation of cell cycle in response to mitogenic stimuli. They are, therefore, be targets toward which the biomedical sciences and pharmaceutical industry directed its efforts to intervene in the trigger mechanisms of cancer (some ant tumor drugs in Phase II clinical research, which has placed considerable trust, act inhibiting its activity). Read the rest of this entry »
To maintain genomic stability, mammalian cells require the action of five proteins encoded by paralogous genes to that of RAD51, a molecule involved in DNA repair, implying orquesrado operation of certain protective mechanisms.
In previous work on RAD51 protein, essential in homologous recombination, has established its relationship to repair mechanisms. Their action, in response to gene damage depends on BRCA2 (protein related to breast cancer) and a series of proteins (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3), known as the RAD51 paralogues. The paralogy, understood as a degree of specialization adopted by horizontally related genes, can deliver a complete answer to the questions raised in this paper. Read the rest of this entry »
Phosphorylcholine, a specific component of the teichoic acids of the pneumococcal cell wall, plays a key role in the mechanisms of pneumococcal infection to humans through direct binding to the receptor of platelet-activating factor (PAF), as well as a anchor for an entire family of pneumococcal surface proteins (the choline-binding protein, CBP). The structure of phosphorylcholine esterase (Pce), the first described for a complete pneumococcal CBP, has been resolved by X-ray diffraction by a team of scientists from the National Research Council, led by John A. Read the rest of this entry »