Molecular Staging

Molecular Staging is addressing this demand with a portfolio of products and services based on technologies that are transforming the detection and measurement of both proteins and nucleic acids.

  • genetic-disorderIf an organism carries a harmful genetic mutation, it can still survive and sometimes even function normally if something in the organism’s environment can compensate for the genetic defect. In this situation, the organism may not appear mutant at all (in other words, though its genotype is mutant, its phenotype is normal – click here for more definitions). Sometimes missing substances normally made by the product of the mutant gene can be provided, or substances normally removed by the product of the mutant gene can be limited in the diet. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Conditional or Hidden Genetic Disorders
  • chromosomesThere are two copies of each chromosome in every cell of an organism. One set of chromosomes comes from the mother and one comes from the father. The chromosomes shown to the right have been spread out on a slide to help scientists called cytogeneticists to tell them apart. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Introduction to Chromosomes
  • fly_antenna1Scientists discovered the existance of genes that determine body plan by analyzing bizarre aberrations in body form that resulted from mutations in fruit flies. For example, Ed Lewis and his colleagues observed fruit flies with legs growing from the head in place of antennae (for real!). They found that a single mutation in a gene could make this happen. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on How did scientists discover genes that determine body plan?
  • inheritenceHow are genes passed from parent to child? Genes are composed of a chemical called DNA. The many, many genes needed for all the biological functions of an organism are found linked together in the cell on extremely long pieces of DNA, called chromosomes. Each human cell (except sperm and egg cells) has two copies of each chromosome, one from the mother and one from the father. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on How does inheritance really work?
  • There is a worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity in the last fifteen years. What are the roles of heredity and environment? This is what British researchers wanted to determine by looking at 5092paires twins (1813 and 3279 true false) aged 8 to 11 years at the time of the study. If the influence of heredity is dominant, mass index (BMI) of identical twins must evolve identically, contrary to the BMI of twins. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Genetics and obesity: a study in twins
  • Protein analysis uses a diseased or treated sample and a control sample. 2D gel electrophoresis is performed for each sample to separate proteins based on their molecular weight and charge. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Protein Separation
  • Making DNA Probes From Cell Samples

    First, the messenger RNA (mRNA) is extracted from the normal or unaffected cell sample, and a fluorescent-labeled cDNA probe is generated. The probe represents all of the genes expressed in these reference cells. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Processing GEM Arrays
  • GEM Library

    spotsBuilding a GEM array begins with the creation of a GEM library, a collection of complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules that contain genetic information from the biological system of interest.
    Arraying cDNA on Glass Chips

    First, individual cDNA molecules are isolated into unique pools and amplified. Next, a micro-sample (containing about one-millionth the volume of a drop of water) of each cDNA is deposited on a glass surface in an array format with each gene occupying a unique location. The micro-samples are then chemically bonded to the glass. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on How GEM Arrays are Made
  • Incyte-Proprietary Clones on Microarrays

    Incyte has combined its in-house bioinformatics expertise and unparalleled genomic databases to develop several new prefabricated microarrays. Each contains up to 10,000 sequence-verified, Incyte-proprietary clones represented in our LifeSeq, ZooSeq, and PathoSeq databases and in our GeneAlbum reagent set. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Incyte-Proprietary Microarrays
  • pharmacogeneticsThis new Incyte program will focus on identifying the role of genetic diversity in disease and drug response by developing technologies and programs for the pharmaceutical industry in polymorphism discovery, genotyping and pharmacogenetics.

    The Future of Drug Development

    Understanding the key genetic differences between individuals will enable pharmaceutical researchers to create better therapeutics. Improved therapeutics can reach new levels by being able to differentiate between individuals according their predisposition to disease processes or susceptibility to adverse effects of medications. Read the rest of this entry »

    Comments Off on Pharmacogenetics