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    How does a DNA molecule encoding a protein?

    Translation: The plant cell responsible for the synthesis of proteins is the ribosome. The specific molecules that will move the amino acids (building blocks of proteins) following the guidelines issued by the mRNA is the tRNA. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon (composed of three bases).

    A protein called aminoacyl tRNA synthetase loaded is responsible for linking the correct amino acid anticodon corresponding to a docking position. Thus from an initiation signal in the mRNA (codon ATG) begins the synthesis, and the first amino acid carried by the tRNA and for this codon is methionine. This first step is called translation initiation and occurs in a particular position called the ribosome aminoacyl (A). Later this tRNA with its corresponding amino acid jumps to an adjacent position called peptidyl (P) and reaches a new tRNA with the corresponding amino acid to anchor in its codon and placed in position A newly freed. Between the two amino acids establishing a binding peptide and the tRNA from the P position is released, starting the process again. This process of elongation continues until a stop codon.

    Once the protein can be synthesized post-transcriptional modifications (cuts by proteolytic enzymes, phosphorylations, glycosylations etc …


    We know that each gene is a nucleic acid sequence that carries information representing a particular polypeptide. A gene is a stable entity, but may undergo a change in sequence. In this change is called mutation. But mutations are important because our environment is constantly changing and we must change with them or become obsolete and die.

    One mechanism of change is at the DNA level. Mutations can lead to new genes and functions that our bodies adapt to the changing environment in which they live.

    There are different types of mutations:

    Chromosomal mutations:

    Translocations: They involve an exchange of large fragments of DNA between two different chromosomes.

    Investments: They appear when a region of DNA changes its orientation relative to the rest of the chromosome.

    Deletions: Loss of a fragment of chromosome

    Nondisjunction of chromosomes

    Point mutations: It consists of a simple change of one base.

    Nonsense mutation: Creates a stop codon where none existed before.

    Lost sense Mutation: Change the source of mRNA, implying a change in the encoded amino acid and therefore in the corresponding protein.
    Silent mutation: No effect on the encoded protein.